And after that he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet.
Then they asked for a king; and God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for FORTY YEARS. And the The Temple was built in Solomon's fourth year.
His article, however, primarily critiques a 1312 BCE Exodus date (found in the Rabbinical Seder Olam Rabbah) espoused by Jonathan Adler, "Dating the Exodus: A New Perspective." pp. He was also aware that the Hyksos Expulsion associated with Pharaoh Ahmose I was a mid 16th century BCE event and that almost 100 years separated the Hyksos expulsion from the 1446 BCE Exodus date, and that because of this discrepancy, some scholars had rejected the Exodus as being a Hyksos Expulsion. Jacobovici was also apparently _unaware_ that a number of scholars had come to the conclusion that the 1446 BCE date preserved in 1 Kings 6:1 appeared to be CONTRADICTED by internal data preserved in the books of Joshua, Judges, 1st and 2d Samuel and Kings (as well as Acts -22).
The "original" article, below, will remain intact with some minor revisions and updates, but is _superceded_ by the above observations of Josephus and Manetho.
One of the "first" problems to be faced is that the Bible exists today in several CONTRADICTING recensions which provide "different dates" for the creation of the world and the Exodus. Kitchen, "Egypt, History of (Chronology)." David Noel Freedman, Editor. Worth noting though, is that Goldstein _never_ makes the observation that 1528 BCE falls within the reign Ahmose I who expelled the Hyksos, in fact, he does not attempt to identify what Pharaoh this date aligns with because his major focus is in refuting the notion of an Exodus ca.
He wrote a history of Egypt in the 3rd century BCE for his Hellenistic Greek overlord Ptolemy II.
He noted that TWO EXPULSIONS occurred in Egypt's history of Asiatics.
The first was of the Hyksos of the mid 16th century and then another in the Ramesside era.
He understood that the Hyksos fled to and settled at Jerusalem, but that 592 or 612 years later (Josephus' two reckonings) "their descendants" reinvaded Egypt, resettling at the town they had been expelled from earlier called Avaris.Catholic scholars fix creation at 5199 BC instead of 4004 BC. Because the Septuagint gives different ages for the pre-flood patriarchs which are in CONTRADICTION to ages preserved in the King James Bible which is derived from a Massoretic Text. Kitchen, "Egypt, History of (Chronology)." David Noel Freedman, Editor. Some have associated the foundation date of the New Dynasty with the expulsion of the Hyksos from the Delta. Kenneth Kitchen and James Hoffmeier favor Ahmose's reign as ca. The bulk of these data comes from the book of Judges, which lists the alternating periods of alien domination over Israel and independent rule by Israelite judges, with the total length of these periods adding up to at least 410 years. There are, however, numerous problems with a fifteenth-century date for the exodus and settlement."Most scholars agreed that the world was only about six thousand years old, though there was considerable disagreement over the exact date of the creation. Before 1985 (when Krauss made his proposal) earlier dates for the 18th Dynasty's founding were in favor, 1580 or 1570 BCE. 1550-1525 BCE (placing the end of the Hyksos dynasty as either 1550 or 1540 BCE), Krauss prefers 1539-1514 BCE for Ahmoses' reign (cf. The period bridging between the Exodus and the commencement of the era of the Judges (with the death of Joshua the son of Nun) comprises 40 years of the Israelites' wanderings in the desert prior to the arrival to the eastern bank of the Jordan river (Exodus , Numbers -34, , Deuteronomy 1:3, 2:7, 8:2-4, 29:4) and the leadership of Joshua, which must have lasted at least 5 years. "It appears to me that a general division of the entire MBII period into three phases (A, B, C) is well documented on the basis of stratigraphy, pottery typology, and development of other artifacts..third phase- MBIIC correlates with the Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty (until "... Hoffmeier correctly points out that the dates found in the book of Joshua through 1 Kings do not add up to 480 years. Hoffmeier calculated the number of years for Joshua, the judges and the kings of Israel up to Solomon and the numbers . For many years, this date was commonly accepted as correct and has been supported more recently by J. One of these is that, if the generations betwen the exodus and the fourth year of Solomon's reign are combined, "Theban royal texts tell of their final victories over the northerners in the 1530's B. The victory inscriptions of these southern pharaohs tell us they threw these foreigners out of Egypt then pursued them to Canaan and beyond.Modern archaeology has established the Israelite settlement of the Canaanite Hill Country from Galilee to the Negev as portrayed in the Bible, was in Ramesside times. If Manetho is correct, that Avaris was resettled by Canaanites in Ramesside times, and expelled again in that era, perhaps this answers the "great mystery" as to why the pottery of the IRON IA settlements is _Canaanite_ in appearance and _not_ Egyptian?The answer: 13 years was apparently too short a period of time for the "reinvading" Canaanite descendants of the Hyksos to adopt Egyptian potting techniques.Mainstream scholarship understands Israel's settling of the Hill Country is Iron I, ca. Why then does the Bible's chronology have an Exodus "hundreds of years" earlier?